Neural injections of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) were applied to males of both groups to test for neurogenesis . Analysis showed that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone regulated adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was regulated through the androgen receptor in the wild-type male rats, but not in the TMF male rats. To further test the role of activated androgen receptors on AHN, flutamide , an antiandrogen drug that competes with testosterone and dihydrotestosterone for androgen receptors , and dihydrotestosterone were administered to normal male rats. Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells.
One last point: Because steroids have all these side effects, a lot of abusers will then take other drugs to offset the effect—steroid abuse causes you to grow man-boobs, so people take another drug to mitigate those side effects. Guys who take steroids often also take augmenting drugs to decrease estrogen production or to improve athletic performance even further, like human growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin, erythropoietin, stimulants, diuretics, levothyroxine, and/or gamma-hydroxybutyrate, according to the study in FP Essentials . That means on top of all these side effects of steroids, most abusers are also looking at a whole separate list of effects from their peripheral drug habits.
Once more, an early study done on S-4 provided proof of full muscle regeneration in volunteers with with degenerative disorders without the use of exercise and the minimum dosage of 3mg/kg/day. Changes can be seen anywhere from 1-2 weeks. This was the very first study classified S-4 as CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT by improving skeletal muscle strength, lean body mass, and a reduction in body fat [Chen et al., 2005; Gao et al., 2005; Kearbey et al., 2007]. Unfortunately, there are always some side effects that arise when using Because S-4 is a ligand by definition, the side effects will never be permanent even at supraphysiological dosages and can be easily avoided through proper dosing.