The use of drugs to enhance physical performance has been observed for thousands of years. Today, individuals continue to use a variety of substances, including anabolic-androgenic steroids, in the hope of enhancing their performance and appearance. Rumours persist regarding the incidence of the nonmedical use of anabolic steroids by athletes and nonathletes: however, true estimates are now available based on the results of systematic surveys. Although the vast majority of the athletic community accepts that anabolic steroids enhance performance and appearance, the extent to which this occurs and the factors influencing such effects remain incompletely understood and documented. Refinement of our knowledge of the ergogenic effects of anabolic steroids is not without merit; however, the existing scientific evidence coupled with an overwhelming number of anecdotal accounts argues against devoting significant resources to this area of investigation at present. The short term health effects of anabolic steroids have been increasingly studied and reviewed, and while anabolic steroid use has been associated with several adverse and even fatal effects, the incidence of serious effects thus far reported has been extremely low. The long term effects of anabolic steroid use are generally unknown. Unfortunately, the lack of scientific information on long term health effects has impeded, if not precluded, the formation of effective health education and drug abuse prevention strategies. Consequently, efforts should be expanded in the areas of prevention and education.
Abstract. Throughout the sports history anabolic -androgenic steroids are known to be used intensively for the purpose of doping in athletes at very young age. In this study, the genotoxic, mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of possible doping substances, Nandrolone Decanoate (Deca- durabolin®) and stanozolol (Winstrol) that are currently being illegally widely used, though the use of them are prohibited, are used to determine in human blood culture by in vitro micronucleus test. For this purpose, different concentrations of doping substances (1, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM) were prepared and applied to the blood culture. For genotoxic effects micronucleus frequency and for to the cytotoxic effects Nuclear Fission Index (NBI) was calculated. The obtained data was compared to the negative control group that were prepeared with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent and a well-known genotoxic effects of Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as positive control group. Based on these results; in our study the doping substances Nandrolone decanoate caused a statistically significant (p< 0,05) increase in human peripheral lymphocyte micronucleus frequency, especially in the last two concentrations (75 and 100 mM). Considering also NBA rate, there was a dramatic decline in the last two concentrations when compared to the control group. However, other doping agents stanozolol did not affect the result significantly, it only caused an increase in the final concentration (100 mM) and the value NB was not affected. Therefore it was concluded that both doping substances can cause genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in high concentrations and use of these substances can be dangerous.
This article reviews the recent literature on the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) for performance enhancement. Recent studies utilizing supraphysiologic doses of testosterone have demonstrated increases in strength and improvements in body composition, despite earlier assertions by the medical community that steroids were ineffective as ergogenic aids. Although data that support the theory of conversion of prohormones, such as androstenediol, to testosterone in the body is available, support for testosterone precursors alone as ergogenic aids is lacking. Drug testing laboratories are utilizing new techniques that analyze carbon-13 levels of urinary steroids to detect exogenously administered steroids as well as the use of urine-manipulating agents. Investigations that seek to refute athletes' various claims for positive drug tests are ongoing. The recent discovery, characterization, and development of a urine test for tetra-hydro-gestrinone, a designer steroid, has brought the issue of performance enhancement once again into the public spotlight. Increasing attention is also being paid to the long-term effects of AAS abuse, as more authors characterize the changes to hematologic, hepatic, lipid, and hormone profiles as a result of years of steroid use. Although the understanding of AAS and testosterone precursors as performance-enhancing drugs continues to advance, there are likely to be more revelations as scientific investigations continue.